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7-hydroxymitragynine

7-hydroxymitragynine

7-hydroxymitragynine: Defintion, Effects, Withdrawal symptoms, Pharmacology

7-hydroxymitragynine is a potent alkaloid primarily found in the Mitragyna speciosa plant, more commonly known as Kratom. Native to Southeast Asia, this plant species has been used for centuries in traditional medicine due to its diverse pharmacological effects. 7-hydroxymitragynine is recognized as one of the most active compounds in the plant, alongside its analogous compound, mitragynine. Profoundly, it is a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist; this mechanism of action is responsible for its potent analgesic properties, making it an essential product in the plant’s overall therapeutic potential.

Despite the therapeutic benefits, extended and excessive use of 7-hydroxymitragynine can lead to adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms, similar to other opioid drugs. It has been observed to cause side-effects, such as nausea, dry mouth, constipation, loss of appetite, and in more extreme cases, seizures, and severe withdrawal symptoms akin to opioid drugs. These ailments hint at a potential risk for dependency and addiction which further mandates regulated usage of the alkaloid and the products containing this potent compound.

What is 7-hydroxymitragynine?

7-Hydroxymitragynine is a potent compound found in the Mitragyna speciosa plant, commonly known as kratom. It’s an alkaloid that stands out due to its distinctive pharmacological properties, among them being opioid agonists. This characteristic is pivotal in determining the effects it has on the body once consumed. 7-Hydroxymitragynine is among the active metabolites of the plant and contributes significantly to its total alkaloid content. The quantity present and the resulting effects can often be determined through an assay.

The effects of 7-hydroxymitragynine can be compared to the effects of mitragynine, another active alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa. However, it’s worth noting that 7-hydroxymitragynine has been found to exhibit more potent agonistic activity towards the opioid receptors. This makes it a crucial substance for research perspectives, as it opens up potential medical and therapeutic applications. Despite its prominence among other alkaloids in the kratom plant, its higher potency necessitates more comprehensive studies to unravel its full potential.

What are the effects of 7-hydroxymitragynine on the brain?

7-hydroxymitragynine is a potent active alkaloid found in Kratom, notable for its profound analgesic effects. Research, mostly conducted using mitragynine in mice, has demonstrated that it exerts its effects by acting on mu-opioid receptors in the brain. Moreover, 7-hydroxymitragynine has been identified as a primary metabolite of mitragynine, suggesting that some of the effects attributed to mitragynine may indeed be mediated by its metabolite. Interestingly, despite the relative abundance of other Mitragynine-Related Indole Alkaloids in Kratom, 7-hydroxymitragynine is considered one of the most pharmacologically active and is primarily responsible for Kratom’s analgesic activity.

On the subject of experiments, many have been conducted to understand the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine and its action on the brain. Studies on the analgesic indole alkaloids have demonstrated that 7-hydroxymitragynine has a higher affinity for mu-opioid receptors than many other alkaloids, hence producing substantially more potent analgesic effects. This affinity is a critical factor in understanding the role that 7-hydroxymitragynine plays in managing pain disorders, with continued research needed to further comprehend its potential benefits and risks.

Is 7-hydroxymitragynine legal in the USA?

In the United States, the legality of 7-hydroxymitragynine is still under debate. The substance, most commonly found in a Kratom product, is known for its profound antinociceptive effects, acting on μ-opioid receptors as partial agonists. These effects can provide pain relief and a sense of well-being, which some users interpret as rewarding effects. Because of these potential benefits, it has been incorporated into several commercial products, available in various forms like capsules, powders, and extracts, which are usually taken for self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal.

However, the rewarding effects of 7-hydroxymitragynine combined with its interaction with brain’s μ-opioid receptors also raise concerns about its potential for misuse and addiction. Besides, adverse effects such as nausea, sweating, seizures, and even hallucinations have been reported in some instances of high-dose or prolonged use. As such, even though it is not currently classified as a controlled substance at the federal level in the US, some states and cities have implemented their own regulations or bans on Kratom products, opting for caution in light of the potential risks.

What are the side effects of 7-hydroxymitragynine?

7-hydroxymitragynine, a potent alkaloid of the Mitragyna speciosa plant, is recognized for its powerful, opioid-like analgesic effects beneficial in managing chronic pain. However, despite its therapeutic potential, there are several concerning side effects associated with its use. Most commonly, users experience physical symptoms such as nausea, dry mouth, and increased urination. More severe side effects include weight loss, insomnia, and even a potential for liver damage. Additionally, this compound can lead to a significant impact on mental health, involving symptoms like anxiety, mood swings, and depression.

A study led by Singh et al. underscores the risk of dependency on 7-hydroxymitragynine, highlighting it as a significant downside to its pain-relieving prowess. Despite being a natural compound, its psychological effects are likened to synthetic opioids, given its traditional use as an opium substitute. Furthermore, misuse can lead to tolerance, thereby requiring higher doses to achieve the same therapeutic effect for chronic pain management. This, in turn, increases the potential for adverse side effects. Consequently, the regulation and risk-vs-reward assessment of 7-hydroxymitragynine presents a crucial challenge in realizing its therapeutic potential.

What are the withdrawal symptoms of 7-hydroxymitragynine?

7-Hydroxymitragynine, one of the primary active kratom alkaloids found broadly across Asia, is known to produce potent opioid-like effects. This compound gets into the human body mainly through oral administration, often as part of traditional medicinal practices or, unfortunately, as a drug of abuse. The aftermath of consistent consumption of this substance includes varied withdrawal symptoms, some of which are significantly influenced by the activity of mitragynine, a closely related alkaloid, in the body’s system.

The metabolism of mitragynine, which often accompanies the presence of 7-hydroxymitragynine, involves specific enzymatic paths programmed to normalize the body’s condition, but they also trigger withdrawal symptoms when the intake is abruptly stopped. A range of symptoms from mild to severe, such as muscle pain, insomnia, vomiting, and mood swings, among others, are typically observed. Moreover, psychological symptoms like anxiety and depression are also reported, indicating the alarming aftermath of this organic compound’s administration. In the face of these consequences, it magnifies why 7-hydroxymitragynine is considered by many as a drug of abuse.

How does 7-hydroxymitragynine differ from kratom?

7-hydroxymitragynine and kratom are both derived from the Mitragyna speciosa plant, a medicinal herb native to Southeast Asia. However, they differ significantly in their pharmacological properties and uses. Kratom is primarily used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of pain and other ailments, while 7-hydroxymitragynine, one of its active components, is viewed as having a higher abuse potential. This potential is marked by the user’s dependence on the substance, leading in many cases to a necessity to increase the dosage to achieve the same effect.

A preliminary discussion on this topic would suggest referring to functional assays, which have shown that 7-hydroxymitragynine has a greater affinity for opioid receptors in the brain – thus explaining its stronger effects compared to kratom. In addition, pioneering research by Brain Res into other kratom derivatives, such as mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, is shedding light on the varying potency of these compounds. It is crucial to note when examining data, the importance of accounting for Error bars, which provide valuable information about the variability and accuracy of measurements. This perspective underscores the need for a cautious and meticulous approach when comprehending the ever-evolving landscape of these substances.

What is the pharmacology of 7-hydroxymitragynine?

7-hydroxymitragynine, an active alkaloid in the Kratom plant, holds a significant place in pharmacology due to its influence on brain reward function. Matsumoto K’s studies have indicated that it acts on opioid receptors, similar to morphine, exerting an effect on brain reward thresholds. Just like morphine on brain reward, 7-hydroxymitragynine can lower the reward threshold, making it easier for the user to feel pleasure or satisfaction. This property consequently contributes to its potent analgesic effects, thus attracting scientific interest.

Expanding on the pharmacological profile of 7-hydroxymitragynine, a different angle of research conducted by Obeng et al. has confirmed the intriguing interaction between this compound and the brain’s reward system. Their study revealed this alkaloid could effectively modulate electrical stimuli used in intracranial self-stimulation. This means, while maintaining the brain’s reward function, 7-hydroxymitragynine can potentially control an individual’s response to pleasure-evoking stimuli. Consequently, understanding its complex pharmacology could prove instrumental in therapeutic drug development in the future.

Is 7-hydroxymitragynine addictive?

The primary alkaloid derived from M. speciosa, known as 7-hydroxymitragynine, is considered to have substantial addictive potential. Scientific studies, including those by Matsumoto et al., have confirmed its addictive nature, primarily associated with its potent antinociceptive activity – the ability to block the detection of painful or harmful stimulus by the nervous system. This specific pharmacological property aligns 7-hydroxymitragynine with other addictive substances such as opioids, which are also known for their antinociceptive effects.

In a process demonstrated by the Decomposition of mitragynine and the Disappearance of mitragynine, subsequent to the incubation of mitragynine in the human body, the alkaloid is converted into the more potent 7-hydroxymitragynine. The altered state enhances its pharmacological effects, thereby increasing susceptibility to addiction. Chronic use of this substance, especially in high doses, is prevalent in certain South East Asia regions. The addictive nature of 7-hydroxymitragynine is also observable in experimental pain models, such as the tail-flick assay, which provides further evidence of its potential for abuse and dependency.

What are the therapeutic uses of 7-hydroxymitragynine?

7-hydroxymitragynine displays a range of therapeutic uses derived from independent experiments. Most notably, the compound is venturing into the sphere of pain management. For instance, the substance is extensively researched on a variety of knockout mouse models to investigate its analgesic properties. Findings highlight DOR-1 KO mice proving valuable as they reveal its potential role in dysphoria and stress-induced analgesia.

The compound also shows promise in areas such as addiction therapy and mental health care, as observed through further incubations per experiment. Utilizing KO models such as KOR-1 KO, and MOR-1 KO provides an understanding of how the compound interacts with opioid receptors, aiding in designing potential interventions for substance abuse. Moreover, its anti-depressant activity, observed when studied under controlled conditions, gives it a potential role as an auxiliary treatment approach for mood disorders.

Sources

Andrew C. Kruegel, Rajendra Uprety, Steven G. Grinnell. (2019,)”7-Hydroxymitragynine Is an Active Metabolite of … – ACS Publications.” https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acscentsci.9b00141.

Andrew C. Kruegel, Rajendra Uprety,Steven G. Grinnell, Cory Langreck. (2019), 7-Hydroxymitragynine Is an Active Metabolite of Mitragynine and a ….” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6598159/.

7-Hydroxymitragynine – Wikipedia.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/7-Hydroxymitragynine.

D. A. Todd, J. J. Kellogg, E. D. Wallace, M. Khin, L. Flores-Bocanegra, R. S. Tanna. (2020),Chemical composition and biological effects of kratom (Mitragyna ….” https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-76119-w